Painting in Glass
Enamelling is the ancient and difficult art of creating beautiful images with finely crushed glass powders. Often the enamelist's "canvas" is a jewel or objet d'art. The enamelist "paints" a surface of the jewel with the crushed glass and, through repeated applications and firings, creates wonderful miniature works of art. Although the first known enamels were created in ancient Egypt (circa 1500 BC), the art of painting in glass has been practiced throughout the centuries.
Over time the art of the enameller evolved with changes in history, fashion and available technologies. Today many of the historical techniques are being revived by contemporary jewelry designers and artisans. Three of the most beautiful enamelling techniques are: cloisonné, guilloché and plique-à-jour. A brief review of each of these schools of enamelling follows.
Cloisonné is the oldest method of enamelling. First practiced by the ancient Egyptians, cloisonné enamelling has been embraced by many ancient and modern cultures. First, a network of "cloisons" (cells or compartments) is formed by attaching thin metal wires to a metal surface, like the top of a jewel. Crushed glass enamels of various colors and optical properties are then placed in the various cells. Through repeated application of the enamels, firing and polishing, the cloisons are filled with the jewel-like enamels. The result is an enamelled jewel decorated with a pattern of gem-like colors separated by polished metal wires.
Guilloché, from the French for engine turning, is the art of engraving intricate circular patterns onto a metal surface. (Remember the toy Spirograph, that was engine turning with paper and pencil). In guilloché enamelling an engine-turned surface is painted with a translucent enamel. The color of the enamel pools and collects in the engraved lines, heightening the pattern and giving it depth and a sculpture-like appearance. Some of the finest examples of guilloché enamelling were produced in the workshops of the Russian jeweler Karl Fabergé. Beautiful examples of engine turning can also be found on many Victorian jewels and pocket watches.
Plique-à-jour is one of the most beautiful and most difficult enamelling techniques. The results of plique-à-jour enamelling are stunning. Imagine the interior of a 13th century cathedral on a bright, sunny day, as warm sunlight streams through the stained glass windows. The sunlight and windows create a brilliant rainbow of intense colors. If you captured this beautiful effect in a small jewel, you would have a plique-à-jour enamel.
Like cloisonné enamelling, plique-à-jour begins with a lattice of thin metal bands. The cloisons between the metal bands are filled with transparent enamels, but, unlike cloisonné, there is no metal backing. When completed a plique-à-jour jewel transmits sunlight like a miniature stained glass window. Particularly stunning examples of plique-à-jour work were created by Russian masters during the mid-1800's and the jewelers of the Art Nouveau period. To the right is a wonderful Art Nouveau brooch of a dancing sprite.
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